What is the difference between genetics and cytogenetics?

Genetics is the study of chromosomes and DNA at the molecular level using DNA technology. However, cytogenetics studies the amount and structure of chromosomes through microscopic analysis.

How does cytogenetics work?

This is done in a laboratory. It refers to a study of tissue, blood, bone marrow, or culture cells. It looks for changes in the chromosomes. The chromosomes could be broken, missing, re-arranged, or extra chromosomes. Changes in the chromosomes may be a sign of a genetic disease or a medical condition.

Give an example of cytogenetics in blood disorders?

It helps to establish or confirm a diagnosis of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. It also helps to know about a serious complication known as blast crisis in chronic myeloid leukemia.

What is a karyotype?

This is an individual’s complete set of chromosomes. This can be a laboratory-produced image of a person’s chromosomes. These are arranged in numerical order. It is used to look into abnormalities of chromosome number or structure. Karyotyping can be used to detect a variety of genetic disorders. Examples of Down’s syndrome, primary ovarian failure, or Philadel CYTOGENETICS is a study of chromosomes. Chromosomes are long strands of DNA and protein that contain most of the genetic information in a cell. Cytogenetics may be used to help diagnose a disease or a condition, plan treatment or find out how well treatment is working. Molecular genetics is the study of genes at the DNA level, whereas cytogenetics is the study of chromosomes.
Sophia chromosome in chronic myeloid leukemia.

What is a normal karyotype?

A normal human karyotype consists of 22 pairs of autosomes and two sex chromosomes. The autosomal chromosome pairs are arranged and numbered from the largest to the smallest. In females, it is written as 46, XX, and in males as 46, Xi

When is cytogenetic testing done?

Cytogenetic testing is performed in a variety of situations, including solid organ cancers, blood cancers, and congenital diseases. It can be done before the birth of the baby after biochemical screening or ultrasound with abnormal findings.

What is a cytogenetic test that includes karyotype useful?

Adults may need karyotype testing if they have trouble having a baby. Blood cancers including myeloma or lymphoma can change the chromosomes. Finding these changes with karyotyping can guide your treatment. Chromosome analysis can determine if you have abnormal chromosomes and what the chances are that you can pass them on to children. Karyotyping from blood costs approximately Rs 9000 in India. What are the major methods of doing cytogenetic tests? Routine Karyotyping. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) are the major methods.

What is the importance of cytogenetics in medical care?

Though a study of chromosomes, it is a vital tool to predict how a person will respond to a particular treatment, and it makes you understand in diagnosing certain cancers.
CYTOGENETICS is an important field in medicine. It helps doctors to predict and diagnose certain blood cancers and solid tumors. It helps to diagnose certain genetic disorders like Down’s syndrome. Furthermore, it also helps to assess the response to chemotherapy in certain blood disorders.

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Dr Jay Deshmukh is Chief Physician and Director, Sunflower Hospital, Nagpur Honorary Physician to Honorable Governor of Maharashtra and PondicherryCentral. Dr Jay Deshmukh is an M.B.B.S., M.C.P.S., F.C.P.S., M.N.A.M.S., MD From Internal Medicine – Bombay and New Delhi.

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