What is the mode of transmission of the virus?
The virus is acquired through contact with an animal’s body fluids or through a bite. In Africa, the virus is seen in many types of squirrels, rats, and monkeys. Infected rodents were accidentally imported to the United States, this led to the first human monkeypox infection in the Western Hemisphere.
What are the symptoms?
Most individuals infected may not have symptoms. Few have a fever, and body aches with a characteristic rash that is important to differentiate from smallpox. The rash may be restricted to hands, particularly in animal handlers. The rash occurs in a specific pattern that may include flat skin rashes, that may turn into a clear fluid rash, then filled with pus, and then eventually crusted within a two to three week period. The majority have a rash, fever, chills, lymph node enlargement, headache, and muscle pains. In cluster cases reported in May 2022, some patients presented with infection in the anal canal or skin lesions on the genitals.
How is the diagnosis made?
Besides the clinical feat tures, laboratory diagnosis infections. The tests include virus isolation, electron virus studies, PCR and ELISA, and immune fluorescent antibody assay.
How are the patients managed?
Simple supportive care is all that is required. The antiviral agents, used in smallpox Tecovirimat and Brincidofovir are also useful in humans as well. The use of smallpox vaccination for pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis may also be reasonable.
Are there any deaths reported?
In Central Africa, the fatal-Monkeypox is a viral infection, seen in certain parts of Africa. It is restricted to animals. Cases outside Africa are linked to international travel or imported animals. However, in May 2022, multiple clusters have been reported in Europe and America in humans. Most cases were seen in men who had sex with men. Globally the major concern is the use of these viruses as a part of bioterrorism. is important as many features of monkeypox are similar to some other virus infections like chickenpox, herpes simplex, smallpox, and certain orthodox virality rate is approximately 10%. Deaths generally occur in the second week of illness. No deaths were reported in the United States due to a healthy population, better health care facilities, and less virulent strain. Given the worldwide eradication of smallpox,
what is the most likely infection in India?
The most likely infection similar to monkeypox is varicella in India. In varicella the vesicular lesions are characteristically in different stages of development and healing when the patient is examined, monkeypox lesions are generally at the same stage. Because of concerns regarding bioterrorism, the possibility of smallpox should be considered.
How to prevent monkey-pox infections?
Data suggests that the prior smallpox vaccine prevents infection and reduces symptoms. A modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine was approved for the prevention of smallpox and monkeypox. These vaccines are recommended for laboratory workers and health care workers doing research or treating patients. It is unlikely that the monkeypox viral infection may pose major health concerns. However, considering our experience with the recent Covid pandemic we need to be very vigilant. Globally the major concern is about the use of these viruses for bioterrorism.